New iPhone 6s: THE QUANTITY 1 Choice

New iPhone 6s: THE QUANTITY 1 Choice

Since the new iPhone 6s has been released, it is the first selection of many businessmen throughout the world. The nice reason is easy. iPhone 6s provides you all you need to reinvent the true way you run your business. Its matchless features keep you productive anytime, anywhere. The lot of business users of the iPhone 6s is due to some powerful features they have with a killer combo of fast performance, sturdy security and productivity-boosting software. Another very important reason of iPhone 6s offering as hotcakes is a pressure-sensitive screen that starts up really useful new operation. You will not find this feature in virtually any other smartphone on the market. Let’s observe how these features have been adding in improving output of businessmen across the world.


The brand new iPhone evidently doesn’t look much not the same as the prior model, but that it is gotten better in the interim. In iPhone 6s, stronger Aluminum can be used for the trunk of these devices and leading panel is manufactured out of a more robust pane of a glass. So, if you unintentionally drop your cellphone, there are fewer chances that your telephone will break and that is a large benefit if you rely upon your smartphone for work.


Senior entrepreneurs or elderly people have been appreciating the relatively roomy sizes of the display which is effective in providing enough amount of space for observing important e-mails and editing recognized documents. It includes 4.7-inch screen with a distinct text and vivid colors. Another noteworthy feature of iPhone 6s is that it is really glowing having 452 nits of lighting whereas the common lighting of other good smartphones is 430 nits. Such shiny display is better to view outside the house or in sunlight.


Entrepreneurs love the 3D touch feature of iPhone 6s since it allows an individual to do various things with a couple of new gestures (pressure delicate gestures) depending on context. This feature saves time and effort and makes iPhone superior highly. For example, if you wish to check on your emails, you touch the mail iphone app once and open the inbox. Then, pressing down hard on a contact message in your inbox enables you to preview it. You are able to slip to the to garbage it also, slide left to draw it as read or swipe up to reply.


Apple’s A9 new processor chip has made iPhone 6s, one of the speediest smartphone of the global world. This processor of the new iPhone outperforms all the rivals, including Samsung Galaxy S6. When iPhone 6s’s swiftness was analyzed to start a 1.6 GB PDF record, it had taken 82 milliseconds whereas Galaxy S6 just, in comparison, required 127 milliseconds.


The brand new iPhone 6s has iOS 9, a fresh iteration of Apple’s mobile operating-system, which offers a lot of features absolutely help be more fruitful. Siri, Apple’s va in addition has been updated and today this application increases results than before. It isn’t only with the capacity of understanding commands, but also more proactive at notifications and reminders. Be it your appointment or an important business meeting, Siri will there be to remind you. It will enable you to calculate travel time predicated on traffic conditions so you lay out for a gathering at the right time. The keyboard is improved. It keeps record of your commonly used features like copy, paste and makes your access easy to them for next time.


Apple’s Touch Identification fingerprint sensor is very helpful for the entrepreneurs. They don’t really have to place password whenever to turn on the phones. The fingerprint is determined by the scanner of the owner and unlocks the phone instantly. It wouldn’t work if it generally does not identify the dog owner, keep carefully the personal and corporate and business information safe hence. The sensor is found in the true home button.


Video conferencing is a medium to stay updated and linked with long-distance colleagues and clients. It is vital for online meetings with abroad clients. Its front side facing camera is of 5 mega pixels, which catches clear images with richer, more appropriate colors, in low-light situations like within an office especially.

7 iPhone subscription, purchase, compare

The iPhone 7 is the new attractive, high Apple for 2016 and 2017. Together with the iPhone 7 Plus is the device on September 7 announced by Apple. The iPhone 7 brings numerous improvements along with it. Think for example of the new A10 Fusion processor, better camera on the front and back of the iPhone 7 water resistance.

The iPhone 7 still has a lot like the iPhone 6 and iPhone 6s. The design has been altered in a few points, but the majority remained the same. For example, the antenna lines better hidden at the back, the camera lens is bigger and the 3.5mm headphone jack disappeared. At the place thereof, Apple has placed an additional speaker, making room for components for the new camera and Taptic Engine. Here you can find everything about the iPhone 7, including buying the iPhone 7 and iPhone 7 offers. Top 7 iPhone subscriptions are selected so buy it for you easier.

iPhone 7 subscription

With an iPhone 7 subscribe to the capabilities of the iPhone 7 will be increased. Below a number of subscriptions for the iPhone 7 that may be of interest to you. Click through for more subscriptions.

iPhone 7 price, performance and release

The iPhone 7 is available in the Netherlands from 769 euros. For that price you get the 32GB model. Apple has finally increased storage memory in the iPhone, so you now have at least 32 GB. The other models have 128 and 256 GB of storage memory. The prices for this are respectively 879 and 989 euros. The models with price in a nutshell is as follows:

– IPhone 32GB 7: 769 euro
– IPhone 7 128GB: 879
– IPhone 7 256GB: 989 euro

The difference between 32 and 128 GB is obviously quite large. Because the memory is not expandable, it is wise to consider how much memory you will need in advance.
The iPhone 7 release in the Netherlands on September 16. Netherlands thus belongs to the first group of countries to get the iPhone 7


Unless you’re manufactured from money there’s only a lot you can certainly do with PPC advertising only. Eventually then internet affiliate marketing boils down to having the ability to promote your website as well as your brand and reach a wider audience. This implies leveraging the email list, blog and social press accounts that you have got setup and with them to get more new guests also to build trust and power. What you ought to recognize here’s that you will be the ‘middle man’ in virtually any business the ‘middle man’ is effectively needless. The customer doesn’t actually need you and owner doesn’t actually need you, and that means you need to make your self essential to each. In this full case, that means aiding the product originator to sell a lot better range of products than they usually could. As well as for the buyer, this means providing great quality information and content and assisting to find a very good offers and products out there. Every business is in the end predicated around providing value of one kind of another. This is one way the affiliate marketer provides their value. At the same time, it’s also the method that you do well as an affiliate marketer and exactly how you build momentum and a pursuing.

In this section, we will have this hyperlink very plainly while looking at the three main types of marketing accessible to you to market your brand.

How to Be successful on SOCIAL MEDIA MARKETING

Among your number 1 tools as an online marketer is social press. Thus giving you a primary type of communication while at exactly the same time permitting you to leverage the energy of real life social networks. Weighed against e-mail marketing, social mass media has the downside of interpretation you have to undergo an authorized – that being Facebook, Or Google twitter. But while this is often a problem, the positive side is that folks can share your articles using their friends which gives it the to move viral. At the same time, social media is normally more multi multimedia and helps it be easier that you can share different kinds of content. But sadly, 90% of businesses and marketers start their social press marketing in totally the wrong manner. The problem here’s that they can spend their time placing to social press but all they’ll post about is how good their business is and it’ll sound like ‘commercial speak’. If this is the sort of status you are publishing to your Facebook or Twitter account, then however you are totally missing the fundamental objective of social media marketing. This sort of content would be fine of course, if you already acquired an audience as well as your aim was to advertise to them simply. What’s actually happening here though, is you are posting content to nobody and you are not giving anyone who might stumble after it any reason that they should think about registering. The question to always consider when making content for the net is: could you follow it? In the event that you noticed a social advertising account such as this, would you subscribe then? In case the answer is not any, then you will need to reconsider how you may be providing your value really.

Clash Royale brief introduction

Are you a the boy who is passionate is his time to spend funny games to play the phone or the computer? Do you have friends who call you a “player”? If ya, I’m very happy to show you a relaxing game – Clash Royale.

What is this game about?

This is a mobile strategy video game that is based and also published by Supercell. This is a video game company based in Helsinki, Finland. This game is dived on the fierce January 2016 for iOS and Android platforms on the sixteenth of February. Let’s start with the game review and talk about the Clash Royale Hack.

Clash Royale is a relaxing real-time strategy game where players must collect different cards based on Clans Universe figures. These cards are unique and you are used with the only goal to destroy the tower of your opponent. Each victory is made up of several cards, prizes and, finally, fame.

What can you do in Clash Royale?

Players have a variety of possibilities – you can discover three arenas, divide cards from other clans, challenge other players who are online and enter into private duels. So, you can challenge the members of your clan to a friendly duel, but be aware that it is not a profit when you do that; This is just a source of entertainment. You will not get any prizes or gold; You only win the humility of your clan, indifferent to the one you lose, for both are members of the same clan. But, for the reason of the improvement dived in February, friendly fight no longer cost nothing.

Card classification

Maps are arranged according to their stats. There are three card types in common, rare and epic. The epic cards are easily found and you are cheap to improve, while the rare heavier are to be found and cost more. But, the valuable cards are the epic, which are hard to find, unfortunately. If you choose to make cards to other clan members, you are crowned. You can call it Karma- “You’re doing well, you’re getting well.” Not only will you help your friends, but you will also get Gold and XP. XP allows you to have a higher position and that makes your crown tower stronger, while gold can be used in kunfitge fight and when you buy cards. Easiest way to earn gold and precious stones is by using the Clash Royale hack visit to homepage.

Rewards for games, chests with a timer

When it comes to chests, you should know that there are three main types. Even though you get a free breast every four hours, you can only store two of them at once. Why should you be collected? Because you will have the countdown for your future free of charge chest. But, crown chests cards offer, gems and free loot and are free every 24 hour. You are not cranky under the condition that you win ten crowns in multiplayer battles. The complex chest type, the treasure chest, gives into three areas – silver, gold and magical chests. You can follow them if you use gems or you get these chests when you win a fight.

How to Check Social Security Number?

How to Check Social Security Number

Surely you have needed at some point your social security identification number. Even if you do not believe it and do not be aware, the number of social security is used very frequently is our daily life, whether it is when requesting medical care, buying prescription drugs, registering as workers, collecting benefits and in others many cases. In each of these actions, we are identified with the unique number of social security as well as the dni or nie.

Every citizen has a social security number regardless of age and if he has a work history or not, we all have a code through which we are identified in the SS.

This number is important to have it always on hand or have it pointed in some place that we know, since you do not know when they can ask for the code for any procedure or management with social security.

If you do not know your number, in this article we explain step by step how to know your social security number. It is not a complex or difficult process, you will only need some documents and follow some simple steps that we will indicate to you next.

What documents do I need to request the SS number?

Mainly depends on the method that we use to make the request, but as a general rule, to ask for the number you will only need your ID or passport and the health card.

Who can apply for worker’s affiliation?

At the request of the employer, for those workers who join for the first time to work in your company and are not affiliated to social security.
By request of the worker
Of course, by the Treasury itself

How can I get my Social Security number

There are several methods for getting the membership number. Here are the different forms available. Also we will mention some documents that you possibly have in house in which appears the code of the social security.

Methods to request the number Social Security

  • Introducing yourself in any SS Administration. You may have to make an appointment to avoid problems.
  • Through the Electronic Headquarters, through the option of Duplicate of Document of Affiliation by SMS. If you use this method it is necessary to have previously communicated to the General Treasury your mobile phone number.
  • Calling the social security user’s phone number. In this case you will be asked for your personal data (name, surname and ID).

Where can I find the SS number

  • In any payroll, either current or old.
  • In the document of resolution of the unemployment.
  • Work life, another document where also the social security number appears.
  • In the health card, in prescriptions issued by the doctor or by going to the nearest clinic.

We have to clarify that the social security number does not always appear on the health card. Normally this card is generated from the code of affiliation to Social Security, therefore, in many cases the number of affiliation with the code that appears on the health card usually matches.

In addition to this important detail, we must look at two other numbers that appear on the card to identify the code of the province where the affiliation was made and a sequential number. If your health card shows the letter “B” behind the longest number, it receives health care as a beneficiary (child not working or student, spouse, etc.) of another person.

Social security itself can override a number if it detects that it was granted without a right to do so. This is often the case in some cases, such as documentary falsification and phishing.

Discover all The Cards of Clash Royale

Clash Royale Card

Today we bring you the guide of all the cards of Clash Royale that we are going to find in this game. If you still do not know it you can read our Analysis of Clash Royale.

To begin with let’s explain that this game has constant updates and improvements, initially had only 42 cards divided into three groups but their number has been increasing. Currently these cards can be of four different types:

  • Common
  • Specials
  • Epic
  • Legendary

These cards are going to be able to be unlocked as we ascend in the different arenas that Clash Royale brings us, these arenas would be equivalent to the leagues that exist in the game also of Supercell: Clash of Clans. Each arena will bring us a different type of cards that we can get, this does not mean that we can not get the cards offered in the previous arenas, but as we go up in league there will be more cards that we can get at that time.

We will have 2 ways to get the cards, the first is through coffers that the game with use this clash royale hack generator will give us every time we win a battle, when we collect a certain number of crowns or every “x” time, here it is important to know that The coffers we win after the battle will only have only four holes to open them and they will only be able to open one by one.

There are several types of coffers in Clash Royale:

  • Free safe
  • Silver chest (3 hours opening)
  • Golden Box (8 hours opening)
  • Crown casket (we need 10 won crowns in battles)
  • Giant Safe (12 hours opening)
  • Magic Box (12 hours opening)
  • Super Magical Safe
  • Epic Chest (will appear promptly in the store and after battle)
  • Legendary Safe (will appear promptly in the store and after battle)

And the second way is to buy cards that the game is going to offer randomly in the store and that will be updated every 24 hours, we will offer a letter of each type where the price will vary depending on the card.

Common Letters of Clash Royale

The famous and mythical Clash of Clans archers are a pair of unshielded remote attackers that will help you by attacking both ground and air troops. This card is unlocked in the training field (tutorial).

If we choose the archers at the time of attack we will loose two. It is advisable to throw them behind a unit with much life that serves as “tank” so that the archers can do enough damage to the target. Although they are one of the basic Clash of Clans troops here are the ones that do the most damage.

Little skeleton with more life than usual that will help us with a swarm of enemies. The Bomber is going to be able to unlock him in the training camp, this skeleton is very special, since it does not immolate but it is going to throw one bomb after another which will wreak havoc on the enemy troops due to its enormous splash damage.

This skeleton we will be able to use it to defend our troops, although also it does much damage to the towers of archers.

The knight is also going to be able to unlock him in the training camp, it is a troupe that owns a great sword and a great mustache very similar to the one of the barbarians but with a style of fight more elegant and like more developed.

The gentleman due to its low cost in elixir and its ample life we can use it to protect troops that we will release behind its back and that will devastate with what they are.

Another card that we can unlock in the training camp and as its name suggests is a shower of arrows that will stop big bosses of enemies but with little life.

This rain will help us a lot when we face a great wave of enemies like skeletons and goblins, but it will not help us attacking towers as their damage is reduced in those objectives. These small details must be taken into account during the game.

Goblins with Spears
Who thought it would be a good idea to teach these three goblins to throw spears? This card we will be able to unlock in Arena 1, this card will consist of three identical elves that we will be very useful as units of support both offensive and defensive.

They are especially useful to be able to finish with the units of air and to be able to defend our towers. In the offensive aspect are troops that behind those that have much life will do enough damage to the enemy towers.

These are going to be three very fast attackers without armor and with enough attack. This card can be obtained in Arena 1.

These Goblins are very effective as distraction for the troops that have much attack and on the contrary do much damage in troops and buildings when nobody is threatening them and they are attacking at will. The most remarkable and maximum virtue is that it is a very fast troop as happened in Clash of Clan, to take advantage of this must be present in our attacks.

Four very weak and fast melee fighters. This card can be unlocked in Arena 2.

This card is a pack of four skeletons that will help you against the troops with a high rate of damage and life, but with a slow movement like the Mini P.E.K.K.A, P.E.K.K.A or the prince. Use them wisely and above all try to find the right moment so that your slight movement does not affect you in your strategy.

Three flying attackers with little life and very fast, some blue minions that will crush everything in their path, unless they prevent it.

This card is unlockable in Arena 2. The minion is a gargoyle with big horns, short wings and large hands with sharp claws covered with dark elixir. Minions must be used behind cards with enough life as the giant, since you can not do much alone.

Its own name indicates it, a cannon that we will plant to defend in front of our towers of defense. The cannon we can unlock in Arena 3, the first games will be hard without the great help of the cannon but the joy of obtaining it will reward your effort.

The cannon is a card that falls into the category of defensive buildings, with ground troops there will be no problem but beware of flying troops as in Clash of Clans cannons do not attack this type of troops so match your defenses .

One orb of four barbarians will go out to defend or attack other enemy buildings. Barbarians, unlike Clash of Clans, are one of the most powerful units that we find in Clash Royale, finally have the role they deserve.

We will use them both on low sands and high sands. They have a lot of life and great damage, they will be a card with a high weight inside the game, but watch out for the cards that do splatter damage or the barbarians will last less than expected.

Another of the cards are considered as defensive buildings within Clash Royale. Controlling the electricity we will try to stop the continuous and incessant attacks of our enemy. The tesla we can unlock in Arena 4.

The Tesla tower will be a defensive building that will be hidden where it can not receive damage, will only receive damage when it comes to the surface and the only way to surface is when the enemy troops are within their range of attack.

Minion Horde
Exactly with the same characteristics that the normal letter of the henchmen only that instead of three minions you will invoke to six.

Logically having a higher number of henchmen will be a more expensive card but will do much more damage than the simple card of the minions. You must think very well which one you should choose for your battles, the simple card or the hordes of henchmen, a decision that may decide the future of your game, well not so much but that you must keep in mind, I think you have already understood what I wanted With my words.

One of the four cards that are going to be spells, you can stop your little enemies with a simple Zap. A small lightning that in a reduced radius will kill the enemy troops with little life and will give you a respite when defending your buildings.

The effect produced by the attack of the discharge is very similar to the attack of the lightning spell of Clash of Clans in its initial levels. It is difficult not to make many comparatives with his older brother since they are basically his characters with a few new additions.

The Mortar
A defensive building with a lot of range that will literally crush the enemy defensive towers from your side of the battle, due to its wide radius and its enormous amount of damage. The mortar is a card that you can unlock in Arena 6.

Because of this, the life of the mortar has been reduced to 20 seconds, but 20 seconds in which you can crush the enemy, but watch out for the flying troops as they are your weak point.

Royal Giant
The Royal Giant enters the battlefield like an elephant in a china store, firing with its huge cannon at any enemy structure. Do not trust that this giant does not have to reach the end of the road. The Royal Giant is a card that we will unlock in Arena 7.

Do not be discouraged to have less life than the normal Giant, just keep in mind that this Royal Giant is going to shoot from far away to the enemy tower, take care to protect it well with other types of troops and you will shake your enemies.

Fire Spirits
In launching this letter appear three fiery spirits prepared for death. They will launch at your enemies and explode causing damage instantly. Its low elixir cost will earn you a place in your deck, only two elixir.

Fire spirits are unlocked in Arena 5. They attack both air and ground targets causing splash damage, the only point against this card is that they have very little life and are helpless before the towers if they face the same as Before the attack of archers or the arrows.

Ice Spirit
This card generates a mischievous ice spirit that freezes a group of enemies. Winter is coming… . An ice chart that was needed and can be very useful for 1 single elixir.

This card we will be able to unlock in Arena 8 from the 2300 drinks, this solitary spirit will use it to freeze both a troop and a large group for 2 seconds and for just a droplet of elixir, certainly a great letter that Will give much play in the different strategies. Its reach of land and air and is a great combination with magicians.

Elite Barbarians
In releasing this card we generate a pair of high level barbarians. They are normal barbarians but harder, faster and stronger. The elite barbarians are unlocked in Arena 7 and their targets are only terrestrial.

They have more life than the common barbarians and are able to survive a fireball or a ZAP but if we face them against four barbarians of the same level the barbarians will win. The card with the best that can be compared is the mini P.E.K.K.A. And if we face them, the elite barbarians win. Anyway it is very expensive and compared it is much better to buy a mini P.E.K.K.A.

The truth is that Supercell has included a variety of cards, it is noticeable that things are well thought out, a short number of letters would have been the cause of the failure of a great game. On the next page we will talk about the Clash Royale Special Letters.

Telephone Social Security: Telephone Number Information TGSS

Telephone Social Security

If you need the social security telephone, either to ask for a working life or for any other official procedure with TGGS, then we give you the necessary details so that you can contact the social security number.

If you need to do any management personally in the TGSS, you should know that it is mandatory to request prior appointment in social security.

  • Social Security Telephone Hours
  • Social security has a face-to-face schedule for tomorrow. However, if you need telephone assistance or to make an appointment, you can call at any time of the day, because if you call outside of a telephone call to speak with an agent, you will be assisted by an automatic system with voice recognition.

If you just want to speak with an operator and not with the automatic system, you must call from Monday to Friday from 9.00 to 14.00 hours.

Social Security Telephone

The telephones that the social security offers for telephone service or to request previous appointments have shared costs, that is to say, the cost of the call is distributed between the user and the TGSS, but even so, they are cheaper than the 902, where the cos Of the call is paid in full by the user or the person making the call. This type of telephone number used by social security, which is common in public administration. The part of the cost that corresponds to the user may depend on the rate that has contracted with the operator.

There are different phones for the different operations that you want to perform. Here are all your phones:

  • Telephone for pensions and other benefits INSS: 901 16 65 65
  • Telephone for automated pre-appointments for pensions and other INSS: 901 10 65 70
  • For affiliation to the SS, ask for the working life by telephone, inscriptions, collections, deferrals and general information, you must call 901 50 20 50

Free Social Security Phone

All phones with additional cost, have a free equivalent depending on the province. In this case, there are numbers of social security telephone numbers. The above telephone numbers are the general telephone numbers for talking to the central office. But if you call directly to one of its offices, the call will not have additional costs as it will be a call to a provincial fixed number.

To see the phone number of your nearest or closest office, you must use the office finder. Once the details of your TGSS office have been opened, the free social security number will appear.

Clash of Clans: Offensive and Defensive Strategy with Air Defenses and Hidden Tesla

We continue one more day talking about the defensive structures of Clash of Clans and the different defensive and offensive strategies against these structures. The last day we were talking about mortars and towers of wizards so today we will squarely with Air Defenses and Hidden Tesla, two defenses that can give a lot of game.

The air defenses and the Hidden Tesla are structures with very interesting advantages. The first is a very effective defense against balloons and dragons while the Tesla plays with the surprise factor to destroy offensive strategies.

Air Defenses

Air Defenses

Air defense is the only defensive construction that attacks only air units. It has a very large radius of attack and its damage per second is quite high. Its weak point is, precisely, its weakness before terrestrial troops:

  • Defense: Due to its great range of attack, the best defensive strategy with aerial defenses is to place them so that they cover all possible stores and the city hall. Until level 8 of the town hall we will not have three air defense units, so until that time we will have to try to adapt the village so that the two units available cover everything. These structures are often the number one target when the attacker has an offensive strategy based on balloons and dragons, so it is advisable to surround the air defenses of other defensive structures.
  • Attack: If you attack with aerial troops your first objective must be to disable the aerial defenses and any terrestrial troops you serve for it. Although dragons suffer with these defenses, it has nothing to do with balloons, since air defenses can destroy any balloon with a couple or three shots, so keep them off.

Hidden Tesla

hidden tesla clash of clans

Halfway between a trap and a defensive building, the Hidden Tesla is a powerful weapon because of the surprise factor, being hidden until the enemy units approach and because it does not need to be recharged as the traps. The Tesla has a decent range of action although that range decreases when it is hidden and unactivated.

  • Defense: As we have already said, the biggest advantage of Hidden Tesla is the surprise factor. Placing them in a good position can be decisive in the defense of the village, so the most important thing is to avoid making it easy to guess their position. Closing them in 2 × 2 boxes can make their position very evident so it is advisable to make visible several sites where a Hidden Tesla could fit to confuse the adversary. When you are improving a Hidden Tesla, it will be visible to your enemies, thus discovering their position, so better leave them out of the village while the improvement is made.
  • Attack: All the opposite that in the defense. You should avoid any site that seems suspicious of containing a Hidden Tesla. Keep in mind that the hidden Tesla only activates if you are in your range or the village you are attacking suffers a 50% damage.

With these tips, less remains to complete all the defensive constructions of the village. In the coming days we will continue talking about the most destructive buildings by using the amazing clash of clans hack tool, if you have questions do not hesitate to share them with us.

Future of Nuclear Proliferation

Nuclear Proliferation

The topic can be addressed in the following three points

1. What is the nature of the crisis facing the nuclear non-proliferation regime?
2. What does this mean to the NPT and its related elements?
3. What are India’s options?

In terms of the nature of the crisis, there are two major crises. One is a kind of a quasi crisis. This is the crisis of what we know of as the A.Q Khan affair, the whole issue of nuclear commerce or nuclear smuggling and the supply of nuclear material from Pakistan and I would suggest that this is not a very serious crisis; this is unlikely to happen again. It had primarily happened because of the fact that there was a misperception about the direction of the nuclear proliferation that Pakistan was involved in. The assumption was that much of the weapons were going into Pakistan. The United States did not realize that a lot of it was also going out of Pakistan.

So there was a kind of misperception. For example, the North Korean link: there were analysts in Delhi who were writing about the possibility that just as Pakistan was getting missiles from North Korea, Pakistan was possibly also supplying something to the North Koreans. It is not that people didn’t realize it but that the reverse direction was not taken seriously enough. This could happen again if it suited the United States and the other major powers to look the other way, as has happened several times. So this is not a fundamental threat to the regime as such, this is a matter of policy and that of political convenience.

The two major types of challenges to the NPT regime are, one the breakout possibility, that the countries that do not have nuclear weapons and are members of the Non Proliferation Treaty, would become nuclear weapons states. This is concerned primarily with Iran and North Korea and also with India, Pakistan and Israel. If we look at the number of cases here, there are only four to five cases. In the 1960’s it was thought that by 1995 there would be 25 countries that would become nuclear powers. Clearly this has not happened. So the seriousness of this as a threat is over rated. Iran clearly violated its commitments, but Iran was caught in that twilight zone where if not caught it would have turned nuclear. Iran’s activities were detected before it could actually become a nuclear weapons state. So much of attention is focused on Iran right now that the possibility that Iran will be able to acquire sufficient amount of fissile material and actually manufacture nuclear weapons is rather remote. Iran’s possible option now would be to do what India and to some extent Pakistan did, which is to build up the civilian nuclear infrastructure slowly, over decades. But the non-proliferation regime has been getting tighter in terms of verification and inspection and so Iran’s capacity to go nuclear has been eliminated or is rather likely to be eliminated.

North Korea has successfully managed that twilight period and has actually managed to cross that point of becoming a nuclear power and if North Korean claim is to be believed they have already manufactured a couple of nuclear weapons. So North Korea represents the case of a successful proliferation while Iran represents a case of failed proliferation. North Korea, India, Pakistan and Israel have managed to build up nuclear capabilities sufficiently before being detected by the United States. The situation in North Korea is very difficult because it is no longer non-proliferation; the situation is now of rolling back the nuclear weapons capability and that is always much more difficult than preventing countries from going nuclear.

But what the Iranian case and the North Korean case demonstrate is that the bar has constantly moved upwards, as Prof. Zuberi already pointed out. The bar in terms of crossing the nuclear threshold, the difficulty level of a non-nuclear country wanting to go nuclear has consistently moved upwards from the time the non-proliferation treaty was signed. So for any new proliferant, the bar is so high that it will very likely be impossible to cross. So the crisis in terms of more countries becoming nuclear is unlikely. North Korea is likely to be the last successful proliferant.

But there is one group of countries, which could break out and become nuclear. These are the countries that are within the NPT and which have built up sufficient industrial capabilities, countries like Japan, Germany, Canada, Sweden, and Australia. For these countries, it is a political decision. For example, if Japan wants to go nuclear, it does not have to build up a nuclear industrial capability; they just have to take a political decision to go nuclear. They already have the delivery capability and the nuclear technological capability. The political decision until now has been not to go nuclear even though there has been a continuous underground debate within Japan about the possibility of going nuclear. So this is the first type of crisis, of countries within the NPT who have built up their civilian nuclear capability deciding to go nuclear.

The second type of crisis is that of United States changing its views about non-proliferation. Many international regimes and laws are primarily dependent on how the great powers behave and what their interests are. International regimes do not come up because the weak powers want them to come up; for example in 1970’s the NIEO, the New International Information Order etc., were all proposed by the third world countries but nothing happened. Whereas when you compare the fortunes of disarmament towards that of non-proliferation again nuclear disarmament primarily coming from the third world and from the non-nuclear states and the proliferation demand primarily from the developed and the powerful states, we can see that non-proliferation has had more success than disarmament. So the most important countries are the countries that are the most powerful and for the non-proliferation regime to be under serious threat would mean that the United States loses faith in the non-proliferation regime. This would mean serious trouble just as in the case of biological weapons convention, CTBT and nuclear disarmament.

But the US has too much at stake in the NPT and in any case all the arguments in Washington about how NPT has failed is only strengthening the regime because what it leads to is other countries fearing that United States will walk out and therefore conceding that the regime should be tightened. When we look at the history of the regime, it is a case of violations of the regime, which in turn made the regime stronger. The 1974 nuclear test conducted by India led to domestic non-proliferation legislation and Nuclear Suppliers Group. In 1980’s Pakistani proliferation led to several international non-proliferation norms; the 1991 Gulf War detected Iraqi violations and led to the Additional Protocol to the NPT, and some of the post 1998 events including detection of A.Q Khan’s role in proliferation led to a whole host of activities to strengthen the regime. PSI is one aspect of this. There was also a talk of preventing non-nuclear weapon states from getting the complete nuclear fuel cycles, the arguments being that a country that is not nuclear does not need a fuel cycle. So the implicit bargain in NPT about countries giving up military nuclear technology in exchange for civilian nuclear technology also faces a threat, in addition to the fact that the bargain over nuclear disarmament was already completely out of the treaty. The threat that the United States might walk out is itself leading to the strengthening of the regime.

What is the implication for the NPT regime? There are four main implications. One is that the NPT regime over all will become even stricter; PSI is one aspect of that strengthening of that regime. Over a period of time we can expect nuclear research, power generation and nuclear civilian transfers coming under threat. The second would be that the inspection regime would become much more stricter. The prospects for the third world countries going nuclear are around zero. Japan and other industrialized countries have the potential from this point onwards for going nuclear. Finally the NPT lobby will become stronger. It has already become stronger in Washington. This is bad news for India as well as for the regime because there will be more legislations and attempts outside the NPT structure to create quasi groups which would lead to further tightening of the regime.

The implications for India can be described again in four points. When the regime gets tighter, Indian and Pakistani position will become that much more harder and from the prospective of New Delhi in particular, we will continue to be clubbed with the Pakistanis, irrespective of the record of Pakistani proliferation. We will not get much out of proving that Indians are the good guys and Pakistanis the bad ones in terms of proliferation because as this regime gets tighter and tighter we are going to be clubbed more and more with the Pakistanis. Second, assuming that the Bush administration continues for another four years and taking in account its unilateral approach, there could be opportunities for a political deal in the United States, even though its possibilities are remote for various reasons. As it becomes more skeptical of the NPT’s usefulness and as the non-proliferation fundamentalists in Washington become stronger, the possibility of a political deal becomes that much less likely. In the last couple of years India-US dialogue has stagnated because of the fact that the non-proliferation fundamentalists in Washington have become stronger. There has been a debate in Washington between the State department and the Defense department a variety of issues like the sale of Israeli Arabs missiles to India, conclusion of agreements on other nuclear technologies, trinity issues etc. The State department has always been much less willing to agree on concessions to India.

The third point is the possibility for India to have a kind of strategic proliferation policy, which is also remote. Several countries have practiced strategic proliferation. The United States and France helped or looked the other way when Israel was becoming a nuclear power and China actively helped Pakistan become a nuclear power. There have been post-cold war debates in Washington about the possibility of other strategic proliferation of countries such as Japan, Germany and Ukraine becoming nuclear powers. The debates have been on the issue of whether it is good for the United States or bad for the United States. India has never had such debates; we have always been more anti proliferationist than even the non-proliferation fundamentalists.

Finally some of the stricter measures and restrictions will have an effect on India directly. None of the discussions with United States about the Trinity issues and the NSSP (Next Steps in the Strategic Partnership) are taking a firm shape. There is opposition from the US State department on any concessions to India even on the issue of third countries like France or Russia supplying nuclear power plants to India. Nuclear power plants are something India is eagerly looking forward to. So the problem is that we have never had a debate about whether proliferation is good for India or not. This rules out the possibility of a compromise that could lead to a negotiation with the United States.

Legal Dimensions of Implementing PSI

The concept of PSI struck me even as it came through the news in September 2003. This is not the first time something like PSI was being used against countries like North Korea. BBC news online 5th September 2003 reported that in December 2002, Spain intercepted a North Korean ship carrying scud missiles and handed over the vessel to United States. We are now faced with the process of ‘formalizing’ PSI as an alliance system. It is, however, instructive to look at the context in which the new alliance system takes shape. A US handout says that the target entities of the PSI system are of two categories – countries like North Korea and ‘non-state entities’, i. e. some select ‘terrorist’ groups.


The United Nations has been grappling at least at the normative level with the problem of ‘elimination’ of international terrorism. By now there are some 12 international treaties and 7 regional conventions. Since 1992, the problem came to be increasingly focused and started repeatedly appearing on the agenda of the Security Council. Since then the great powers were given the opportunity to use the Security Council for conceptualizing and seeking to implement a sort of PSI, at least against the terrorist groups. The result, of course, was the resolution, Prof. Zuberi referred to in his presentation, Resolution 1540 of 2004 adopted on 28th April 2004. I have no difficulty in reading this resolution as terrorism-specific, as it is formulated as one of the Council responses to international terrorism. Normally resolutions of international bodies do not contain footnotes but this resolution has footnotes. There is a star footnote on the first page, which says “definitions for the purpose of this resolution only.” These are definitions of three terms, namely, “means of delivery,” “non-state actor” (“individual or entity not acting under the lawful authority of any State in conducting activities which come within the scope of this resolution”), and “related material.” Prof Zuberi was pondering aloud over the meaning of “related material:” the definition is found in the resolution. Although not too specific, the definition is adequate for the purposes of understanding the rationale behind the resolution.

The context should also include the issue of disarmament. By the 1954, it was insisted by Jawaharlal Nehru at his UN General Assembly annual interventions that the issues of disarmament should be dealt with multilaterally not unilaterally, as not only the great powers, but all members of the international community had seminal interest in pursuing the goal of disarmament. But now things are being dealt with through ‘collective unilateralism:’ it begins with one individual State, usually a great power, then eventually in order to seek legitimacy it becomes collective unilateralism.

I would present three points on PSI from a legal perspective:

1. Unilateralism.
2. Use of force under the UN Charter.
3. Law of the Sea.

On unilateral actions there is a general rule, as formulated by the International Court of Justice in the Anglo-Norwegian Fisheries case in 1951. The Court ruled that while a State has considerable freedom of action, when a conduct of State has international implications, the legality of that conduct should be subject to determination by International Law. In other words, the burden is on the state concerned to justify its action in terms of legitimacy and acceptability under International Law. I would therefore look at unilateral acts of states from this perspective.

What we have here is what I would call as ‘collective unilaterlism’ to force selective disarmament. The trend began with the London Club in 1975, then MTCR in 1987, then Australia club in 1992, Wassenaar Club in 1995, and now The Hague Group of 2002. Particularly the last two have all brought about restrictions and embargoes in free international transfers of what these clubs deem to be dual use technologies. The problem with these clubs is that they are very loose clubs, they don’t even have Articles of Association (let alone any treaty basis), except for certain generally agreed guidelines and these guidelines get broadened over and over again, at the instance of a great power. If these guidelines are implemented by national legislation by a ‘participant’ country, by even extending their import to transactions between and in non-participating countries, the result of that kind of implementation is felt to the detriment of these countries. We in India have been familiar with such arbitrary extraterritorial application of national laws by the US. In the 1992-93 cryogenic engine controversy Russia was arm-twisted to back out of the technology transfer obligations under the erstwhile Indo-Russian Cryogenic Engine Technology Agreement even as both India and Russia (at that time) were not parties to MTCR. Washington put the heat on Moscow and Moscow backed out of the agreement giving India five additional cryogenic engines in return for the abrogation/renegotiation of the agreement. So such ‘collective unilateral’ arrangements as MTCR would give lead to acts of dubious legality.

Prof. Zuberi highlighted discrimination in the realm of disarmament. Why is it that the P5 can legitimately acquire and hold nuclear weapons and others cannot. If others do it, it is illegal, in terms of the NPT. But when the P5 hold and vertically multiply nuclear weapons there is nothing wrong with it. The non-P5 should not also transfer nuclear weapons or their technology. Do we have any international peremptory norm prohibiting development or transfer of nuclear weapons or any other weapons only with respect to certain countries and not to others. Or is the privilege of the P5 to determine this? Peremptory norms can only be non-discriminatory – except on ground of equity. We cannot have a selective, discriminatory international framework of norms and institutional mechanism that would treat a small group of states privileged in view of their superior military power. Any international disarmament monitoring or enforcing mechanism, by its very definition, must have authority over all states without any discrimination. I would assess the validity and legitimacy of PSI from that angle. PSI tries to cater for the interests of a few countries, primarily some of the great powers. Could we seek answers to global issues of disarmament in this way? This is a question to ponder over.

The second aspect is use of force. The law relating to use of force is of course very clear although this is the very law which is being violated repeatedly. Article 2 (4) of the UN Charter clearly says: ” All Members shall refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any State or in any manner inconsistent with the purposes of the United Nations.” There are two kinds of situations in which use of force is permissible: one, organizational action by the Security Council, and the other Article 51 right of self-defence. The Council now authorizes PSI. Does PSI fall within the right of self-defence? The answer would be No because you need an armed attack to invoke the right of self-defense. Security Council resolution 1540 is terrorism-specific. It is non-state actor specific. The PSI allows some states to act outside the UN Charter framework of control of force and yet insists legitimacy.

The third aspect is the Law of the Sea. There are two critical areas in this regard, one is the law relating to the territorial sea and the other, that of the high seas. The way in which the provisions on territorial waters came to be adopted in the 1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, has had a long history. Earlier the complaint of the countries of blue water navies was that the coastal states could at a moment’s notice declare any passage as non-innocent and that there were no objective criteria particularly in Article 16 of the Geneva Convention on the Territorial Sea of 1958 (which dealt with the passage through straits). The issue was quite extensively debated. In order to eliminate the chances of subjective application of the concept of innocent passage by the coastal states, the UN Convention of 1982 came up with objective criteria, yet protecting the coastal state rights to tackle any problems of security, and law and order. Let the coastal state handle these problems in its own way within the framework of 1982 Convention. Why PSI? Or would PSI give a handle to a foreign state to enter into a coastal state’s territorial waters and apply PSI principles even without consulting the latter.

With the regime of the High Seas, the ruling principle has been freedom of the high seas. There was a time, not long ago, when the freedom of the high seas was interpreted by the United States, as implying a right for it not to affirm or deny that its ships carried nuclear weapons: this was about 10 or 15 years ago, and precisely for this reason United States was quite unwilling to be a party to protocols of many of the regional nuclear free zone treaties. PSI represents an about-turn. I don’t declare whether my ships carry nuclear weapons or not but you better come clean on it. If you don’t, I step on you on suspicion that you carry nuclear weapons. One finds this to a highly arbitrary use of the freedom of the high seas principle. An equally lofty principle of the High Seas is that each state must respect the rights of the others. Each shall exercise its rights with due regard to the rights of others.

For all these reasons PSI is of highly doubtful legality.